Disorders of the spinal cord and roots

Disorders of the spinal cord and roots, I, Introduction

The distinctive patterns of myelopathy (disorder of the spinal cord) and radiculopathy (disorder of spinal roots) are a direct consequence of the striking anatomy of the spinal cord:

  • its near cylindrical, segmental structure of great length (42–45 cm in adults)

  • the marked proximity of ascending and descending long tracts within the confines of a narrow cross sectional area (the maximum circumference of the cervical enlargement of the cord is approximately 38 mm)

  • enclosure by meninges and vertebral column

  • vulnerable blood supply.

  • Having established that a patient's clinical presentation localises to the spinal cord and/or roots, clues to the pathological diagnosis emerge from the timing of the symptoms (table 1), as is usually the case in neurology.

    Neuroanatomy and specific syndromesSpinal cord

    The relationships of the white matter tracts to one another and to the..., admin,

    Predictors of seizure reduction outcome after vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy

    Predictors of seizure reduction outcome after vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant epilepsy, About 30–40% of epilepsy patients whose seizures cannot be controlled with two well-tolerated, appropriately chosen, and used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) [1]. Even with adequate access to surgical treatment and further AEDs trials, 61.1% of patients with DRE have ongoing seizures [2]., About 30–40% of epilepsy patients whose seizures cannot be controlled with two well-tolerated, appropriately chosen, and used antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are considered to have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) [1]. Even with adequate access to surgical treatment and further AEDs trials, 61.1% of patients with DRE have ongoing seizures [2]. Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as adjunct therapy to reduce the frequency of seizures in adults with DRE [3]., admin,

    Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Carotid Plaque: A Pilot Study of Risk Factors in an Indigenous Nigerian...

    Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Carotid Plaque: A Pilot Study of Risk Factors in an Indigenous Nigerian..., Risk factors for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque (CP) differ by ethnicity; however, this is not well understood in some ethnic populations. This work examines the risk factors for cIMT and CP in an indigenous Nigerian population., Risk factors for carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque (CP) differ by ethnicity; however, this is not well understood in some ethnic populations. This work examines the risk factors for cIMT and CP in an indigenous Nigerian population., admin,

    Newborn screening for SMA in Southern Belgium

    Newborn screening for SMA in Southern Belgium, Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and muscle atrophy. The spectrum of the SMA phenotype is stratified into five types depending on the age of onset, which can range from before birth to young adulthood., Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is an inherited neuromuscular disorder that is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord and muscle atrophy. The spectrum of the SMA phenotype is stratified into five types depending on the age of onset, which can range from before birth to young adulthood. Motor neuron loss often results in severe muscle weakness, causing affected infants to die before 2 years of age (type 0 with neonatal onset, or type 1 in approximately 50% of all cases)., admin,

    Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Systematic Review and...

    Association Between Serum Uric Acid Levels and Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: A Systematic Review and..., Xinglong Yang, Baiyuan Yang, Mengjun Wu, Fang Wang, Xiaodong Huang, Kelu Li, Zhiwei Mao, Zhong Xu, Hui Ren, Xinglong Yang, Baiyuan Yang, Mengjun Wu, Fang Wang, Xiaodong Huang, Kelu Li, Zhiwei Mao, Zhong Xu, Hui Ren, admin,

    IL-6 Plasma Levels Correlate With Cerebral Perfusion Deficits and Infarct Sizes in Stroke Patients Without...

    IL-6 Plasma Levels Correlate With Cerebral Perfusion Deficits and Infarct Sizes in Stroke Patients Without..., Benjamin Hotter, Sarah Hoffmann, Lena Ulm, Christian Meisel, Jochen B. Fiebach, Andreas Meisel, Benjamin Hotter, Sarah Hoffmann, Lena Ulm, Christian Meisel, Jochen B. Fiebach, Andreas Meisel, admin,

    Pain Catastrophizing in Childhood Migraine: An Observational Study in a Tertiary Headache Center

    Pain Catastrophizing in Childhood Migraine: An Observational Study in a Tertiary Headache Center, Vittorio Sciruicchio, Michele Simeone, Maria Grazia Foschino Barbaro, Roberta Caterina Tanzi, Marianna D. Delussi, Giuseppe Libro, Daniela D'Agnano, Roberta Basiliana, Marina de Tommaso, Vittorio Sciruicchio, Michele Simeone, Maria Grazia Foschino Barbaro, Roberta Caterina Tanzi, Marianna D. Delussi, Giuseppe Libro, Daniela D'Agnano, Roberta Basiliana, Marina de Tommaso, admin,

    Features of Primary Chronic Headache in Children and Adolescents and Validity of Ichd 3 Criteria

    Features of Primary Chronic Headache in Children and Adolescents and Validity of Ichd 3 Criteria, Laura Papetti, Irene Salfa, Barbara Battan, Romina Moavero, Cristiano Termine, Beatrice Bartoli, Francesca Di Nunzio, Samuela Tarantino, Pierfrancesco Alaimo Di Loro, Federico Vigevano, Massimiliano Valeriani, Laura Papetti, Irene Salfa, Barbara Battan, Romina Moavero, Cristiano Termine, Beatrice Bartoli, Francesca Di Nunzio, Samuela Tarantino, Pierfrancesco Alaimo Di Loro, Federico Vigevano, Massimiliano Valeriani, admin,

    Disorders of the spinal cord and roots

    Disorders of the spinal cord and roots, I, Introduction

    The distinctive patterns of myelopathy (disorder of the spinal cord) and radiculopathy (disorder of spinal roots) are a direct consequence of the striking anatomy of the spinal cord:

  • its near cylindrical, segmental structure of great length (42–45 cm in adults)

  • the marked proximity of ascending and descending long tracts within the confines of a narrow cross sectional area (the maximum circumference of the cervical enlargement of the cord is approximately 38 mm)

  • enclosure by meninges and vertebral column

  • vulnerable blood supply.

  • Having established that a patient's clinical presentation localises to the spinal cord and/or roots, clues to the pathological diagnosis emerge from the timing of the symptoms (table 1), as is usually the case in neurology.

    Neuroanatomy and specific syndromesSpinal cord

    The relationships of the white matter tracts to one another and to the..., admin,

    H3.3 K27M depletion increases differentiation and extends latency of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma growth...

    H3.3 K27M depletion increases differentiation and extends latency of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma growth..., Abstract Histone H3 K27M mutation is the defining molecular feature of the devastating pediatric brain tumor, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The prevalence of histone H3 K27M mutations indicates a critical role in DIPGs, but the contribution of the mutation to disease pathogenesis remains unclear.,

    Abstract


    Histone H3 K27M mutation is the defining molecular feature of the devastating pediatric brain tumor, diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG). The prevalence of histone H3 K27M mutations indicates a critical role in DIPGs, but the contribution of the mutation to disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We show that knockdown of this mutation in DIPG xenografts restores K27M-dependent loss of H3K27me3 and delays tumor growth. Comparisons of matched DIPG xenografts with and without K27M knockdown allowed identification of mutation-specific effects on the transcriptome and epigenome. The resulting transcriptional changes recapitulate expression signatures from K27M primary DIPG tumors and are strongly enriched for genes associated with nervous system development. Integrated analysis of ChIP-seq and expression data showed that genes upregulated by the mutation are overrepresented in apparently bivalent promoters. Many of these targets are associated with more immature differentiation states. Expression profiles indicate K27M knockdown decreases proliferation and increases differentiation within lineages represented in DIPG. These data suggest that K27M-mediated loss of H3K27me3 directly regulates a subset of genes by releasing poised promoters, and contributes to tumor phenotype and growth by limiting differentiation. The delayed tumor growth associated with knockdown of H3 K27M provides evidence that this highly recurrent mutation is a relevant therapeutic target.

    , admin,

    Disorders of the spinal cord and roots

    Disorders of the spinal cord and roots, I, Introduction

    The distinctive patterns of myelopathy (disorder of the spinal cord) and radiculopathy (disorder of spinal roots) are a direct consequence of the striking anatomy of the spinal cord:

  • its near cylindrical, segmental structure of great length (42–45 cm in adults)

  • the marked proximity of ascending and descending long tracts within the confines of a narrow cross sectional area (the maximum circumference of the cervical enlargement of the cord is approximately 38 mm)

  • enclosure by meninges and vertebral column

  • vulnerable blood supply.

  • Having established that a patient's clinical presentation localises to the spinal cord and/or roots, clues to the pathological diagnosis emerge from the timing of the symptoms (table 1), as is usually the case in neurology.

    Neuroanatomy and specific syndromesSpinal cord

    The relationships of the white matter tracts to one another and to the..., admin,

    A walk through tau therapeutic strategies

    A walk through tau therapeutic strategies, Tau neuronal and glial pathologies drive the clinical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease and related human tauopathies. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pathological tau species can travel ..., Tau neuronal and glial pathologies drive the clinical presentation of Alzheimer’s disease and related human tauopathies. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that pathological tau species can travel ..., admin,

    SET SUMOylation promotes its cytoplasmic retention and induces tau pathology and cognitive impairments

    SET SUMOylation promotes its cytoplasmic retention and induces tau pathology and cognitive impairments, PP2A is a major regulator of tau phosphorylation, which is principally regulated by an endogenous nuclear protein inhibitor 2 of PP2A (I2PP2A), also named SET. However, how SET is post-translationally regulated a..., PP2A is a major regulator of tau phosphorylation, which is principally regulated by an endogenous nuclear protein inhibitor 2 of PP2A (I2PP2A), also named SET. However, how SET is post-translationally regulated a..., admin,

    Disorders of the spinal cord and roots

    Disorders of the spinal cord and roots, I, Introduction

    The distinctive patterns of myelopathy (disorder of the spinal cord) and radiculopathy (disorder of spinal roots) are a direct consequence of the striking anatomy of the spinal cord:

  • its near cylindrical, segmental structure of great length (42–45 cm in adults)

  • the marked proximity of ascending and descending long tracts within the confines of a narrow cross sectional area (the maximum circumference of the cervical enlargement of the cord is approximately 38 mm)

  • enclosure by meninges and vertebral column

  • vulnerable blood supply.

  • Having established that a patient's clinical presentation localises to the spinal cord and/or roots, clues to the pathological diagnosis emerge from the timing of the symptoms (table 1), as is usually the case in neurology.

    Neuroanatomy and specific syndromesSpinal cord

    The relationships of the white matter tracts to one another and to the..., admin,

    The effect of medial pulvinar stimulation on temporal lobe seizures

    The effect of medial pulvinar stimulation on temporal lobe seizures, Summary We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation of the medial pulvinar (PuM) in terms of its effect on temporal lobe seizures. Eight patients with drug‐resistant temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing stereoelectroencephalographic exploration were included. All had at least one electrode exploring the PuM.,

    Summary


    We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation of the medial pulvinar (PuM) in terms of its effect on temporal lobe seizures. Eight patients with drug‐resistant temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing stereoelectroencephalographic exploration were included. All had at least one electrode exploring the PuM. High‐frequency (50 Hz) stimulations of the PuM were well tolerated in the majority of them. During diagnostic stimulation to confirm the epileptogenic zone, 19 seizures were triggered by stimulating the hippocampus. During some of these seizures, ipsilateral pulvinar stimulation was applied (130 Hz, pulse width = 450 microseconds, duration = 3‐7 seconds, 1‐2 mA). Compared to non–PuM‐stimulated seizures, five of eight patients experienced clinically less severe seizures, particularly in terms of degree of alteration of consciousness. On the electrical level, seizures were more rapidly clonic with a shorter tonic phase. This proof of concept study is the first to suggest that PuM stimulation could be a well‐tolerated and effective means of therapeutic deep brain stimulation in drug‐resistant epilepsies.

    , admin,