Is atypical rhythm a risk factor for developmental speech and language disorders?

Is atypical rhythm a risk factor for developmental speech and language disorders?, The article proposes the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis, which posits that individuals with poor rhythm are at higher risk for developmental speech/language disorders. If a significant body of evidence is found to support this hypothesis, we can envision new risk factor models that incorporate atypical rhythm to predict risk of developing speech/language disorders., Is atypical rhythm a risk factor for developmental speech and language disorders?

The article proposes the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis, which posits that individuals with poor rhythm are at higher risk for developmental speech/language disorders. If a significant body of evidence is found to support this hypothesis, we can envision new risk factor models that incorporate atypical rhythm to predict risk of developing speech/language disorders.




Abstract


Although a growing literature points to substantial variation in speech/language abilities related to individual differences in musical abilities, mainstream models of communication sciences and disorders have not yet incorporated these individual differences into childhood speech/language development. This article reviews three sources of evidence in a comprehensive body of research aligning with three main themes: (a) associations between musical rhythm and speech/language processing, (b) musical rhythm in children with developmental speech/language disorders and common comorbid attentional and motor disorders, and (c) individual differences in mechanisms underlying rhythm processing in infants and their relationship with later speech/language development. In light of converging evidence on associations between musical rhythm and speech/language processing, we propose the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis, which posits that individuals with atypical rhythm are at higher risk for developmental speech/language disorders. The hypothesis is framed within the larger epidemiological literature in which recent methodological advances allow for large‐scale testing of shared underlying biology across clinically distinct disorders. A series of predictions for future work testing the Atypical Rhythm Risk Hypothesis are outlined. We suggest that if a significant body of evidence is found to support this hypothesis, we can envision new risk factor models that incorporate atypical rhythm to predict the risk of developing speech/language disorders. Given the high prevalence of speech/language disorders in the population and the negative long‐term social and economic consequences of gaps in identifying children at‐risk, these new lines of research could potentially positively impact access to early identification and treatment.


This article is categorized under:
Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain
Neuroscience > Development
Linguistics > Language Acquisition

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Astragaloside IV inhibits astrocyte senescence: implication in Parkinson’s disease

Astragaloside IV inhibits astrocyte senescence: implication in Parkinson’s disease, Senescent astrocytes have been implicated in the aging brain and neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is an antioxidant derivative from a traditional Chines..., Senescent astrocytes have been implicated in the aging brain and neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) is an antioxidant derivative from a traditional Chines..., admin,

Loss of mural cell-derived laminin aggravates hemorrhagic brain injury

Loss of mural cell-derived laminin aggravates hemorrhagic brain injury, Mural cells synthesize and deposit laminin to the basement membrane. To investigate the function of mural cell-derived laminin, we generated a mutant mouse line lacking mural cell-derived laminin (termed PKO)...., Mural cells synthesize and deposit laminin to the basement membrane. To investigate the function of mural cell-derived laminin, we generated a mutant mouse line lacking mural cell-derived laminin (termed PKO)...., admin,

The NLRP3 inflammasome in traumatic brain injury: potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target

The NLRP3 inflammasome in traumatic brain injury: potential as a biomarker and therapeutic target, There is a great clinical need to identify the underlying mechanisms, as well as related biomarkers, and treatment targets, for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroinflammation is a central pathophysiological f..., There is a great clinical need to identify the underlying mechanisms, as well as related biomarkers, and treatment targets, for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Neuroinflammation is a central pathophysiological f..., admin,

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs): DoUBle-edged swords in CNS autoimmunity

Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs): DoUBle-edged swords in CNS autoimmunity, Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the CNS. The etiology of MS is still unclear but it is widely recognized that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its pathogene..., Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the CNS. The etiology of MS is still unclear but it is widely recognized that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to its pathogene..., admin,

Exogenous activation of cannabinoid-2 receptor modulates TLR4/MMP9 expression in a spinal cord ischemia...

Exogenous activation of cannabinoid-2 receptor modulates TLR4/MMP9 expression in a spinal cord ischemia..., Cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2R) plays an important role in the cascading inflammation following ischemic injury. The toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4)/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) signal pathway is involved in b..., Cannabinoid-2 receptor (CB2R) plays an important role in the cascading inflammation following ischemic injury. The toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4)/matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) signal pathway is involved in b..., admin,

Casting a wide net: use of diverse model organisms to advance toxicology [EDITORIAL]

Casting a wide net: use of diverse model organisms to advance toxicology [EDITORIAL], ABSTRACT Toxicology – the study of how chemicals interact with biological systems – has clear relevance to human health and disease. Persistent exposure to natural and synthetic chemicals is an unavoidable part of living on our planet; yet, we understand very little about the effects of exposure to the vast majority of chemicals., ABSTRACT

Toxicology – the study of how chemicals interact with biological systems – has clear relevance to human health and disease. Persistent exposure to natural and synthetic chemicals is an unavoidable part of living on our planet; yet, we understand very little about the effects of exposure to the vast majority of chemicals. While epidemiological studies can provide strong statistical inference linking chemical exposure to disease, research in model systems is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of action and to predict outcomes. Most research in toxicology utilizes a handful of mammalian models that represent a few distinct branches of the evolutionary tree. This narrow focus constrains the understanding of chemical-induced disease processes and systems that have evolved in response to exposures. We advocate for casting a wider net in environmental toxicology research to utilize diverse model systems, including zebrafish, and perform more mechanistic studies of cellular responses to chemical exposures to shift the perception of toxicology as an applied science to that of a basic science. This more-inclusive perspective will enrich the field and should remain central to research on chemical-induced disease.

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First person - Mami Uemura and Mayumi Higashi [FIRST PERSON]

First person - Mami Uemura and Mayumi Higashi [FIRST PERSON], ABSTRACT First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM), helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Mami Uemura and Mayumi Higashi are joint first authors on ‘Gallbladder wall abnormality in biliary atresia of mouse Sox17+/– neonates and human infants’, published in DMM., ABSTRACT

First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Disease Models & Mechanisms (DMM), helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Mami Uemura and Mayumi Higashi are joint first authors on ‘Gallbladder wall abnormality in biliary atresia of mouse Sox17+/– neonates and human infants’, published in DMM. Mami is a researcher in the lab of Yoshiakira Kanai at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, the University of Tokyo, Japan, investigating the pathologic clarification of hepatobiliary diseases such as biliary atresia. Mayumi is a researcher and pediatric surgeon in the lab of Tatsuro Tajiri at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Japan, investigating pediatric liver diseases and the development of therapies.

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Gallbladder wall abnormality in biliary atresia of mouse Sox17+/- neonates and human infants [RESEARCH...

Gallbladder wall abnormality in biliary atresia of mouse Sox17+/- neonates and human infants [RESEARCH..., ABSTRACT Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by the inflammation and obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs) in newborn infants. SOX17 is a master regulator of fetal EHBD formation., ABSTRACT

Biliary atresia (BA) is characterized by the inflammation and obstruction of the extrahepatic bile ducts (EHBDs) in newborn infants. SOX17 is a master regulator of fetal EHBD formation. In mouse Sox17+/– BA models, SOX17 reduction causes cell-autonomous epithelial shedding together with the ectopic appearance of SOX9-positive cystic duct-like epithelia in the gallbladder walls, resulting in BA-like symptoms during the perinatal period. However, the similarities with human BA gallbladders are still unclear. In the present study, we conducted phenotypic analysis of Sox17+/– BA neonate mice, in order to compare with the gallbladder wall phenotype of human BA infants. The most characteristic phenotype of the Sox17+/– BA gallbladders is the ectopic appearance of SOX9-positive peribiliary glands (PBGs), so-called pseudopyloric glands (PPGs). Next, we examined SOX17/SOX9 expression profiles of human gallbladders in 13 BA infants. Among them, five BA cases showed a loss or drastic reduction of SOX17-positive signals throughout the whole region of gallbladder epithelia (SOX17-low group). Even in the remaining eight gallbladders (SOX17-high group), the epithelial cells near the decidual sites were frequently reduced in the SOX17-positive signal intensity. Most interestingly, the most characteristic phenotype of human BA gallbladders is the increased density of PBG/PPG-like glands in the gallbladder body, especially near the epithelial decidual site, indicating that PBG/PPG formation is a common phenotype between human BA and mouse Sox17+/– BA gallbladders. These findings provide the first evidence of the potential contribution of SOX17 reduction and PBG/PPG formation to the early pathogenesis of human BA gallbladders.


This article has an associated First Person interview with the joint first authors of the paper.

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Familial hypercholesterolemia class II low-density lipoprotein receptor response to statin treatment...

Familial hypercholesterolemia class II low-density lipoprotein receptor response to statin treatment..., ABSTRACT Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) mutations are the primary cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Class II LDLR mutations result in a misfolded LDLR retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have developed a model of FH class II and CRISPR-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) capable of replicating mutant and repaired LDLR functions., ABSTRACT

Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR) mutations are the primary cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Class II LDLR mutations result in a misfolded LDLR retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We have developed a model of FH class II and CRISPR-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) capable of replicating mutant and repaired LDLR functions. We show here that iPSC and derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLC) replicate misfolded LDLR accumulation and restoration of LDLR function in CRISPR-corrected cells. It was reported that model cells overexpressing class II LDLR mutants result in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulation of immature LDLR and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). We show here that statins induce a similar accumulation of immature LDLR that is resolved with class II correction. We also demonstrate that, although capable of UPR induction with tunicamycin treatment, unlike overexpression models, statin-treated class II iPSC and derived HLC do not induce the common UPR markers Grp78 (also known as HSPA5) or spliced XBP1 [XBP1 (S)]. Because statins are reported to inhibit UPR, we utilized lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) medium, but still did not detect UPR induction at the Grp78 and XBP1 (S) levels. Our study demonstrates the recapitulation of mutant and corrected class II LDLR function and suggests that overexpression models may not accurately predict statin-mediated class II protein biology.

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Prosody indexes both competence and performance

Prosody indexes both competence and performance, The rhythm, volume, and intonation of speech convey a wealth of linguistic information; however, we also need to understand the cognitive factors that affect how people process and produce these cues. Abstract Prosody is an important feature of language that conveys a wide range of information., Prosody indexes both competence and performance

The rhythm, volume, and intonation of speech convey a wealth of linguistic information; however, we also need to understand the cognitive factors that affect how people process and produce these cues.




Abstract


Prosody is an important feature of language that conveys a wide range of information. However, prosody is widely considered to be a difficult domain of study within the language sciences. One consequence of this is that existing grammatical theories of prosody fail to explain prosodic choices that seem to arise from nonlinguistic cognitive demands, such as communicative context, top‐down expectations, and recent articulatory and acoustic experience. We provide an account of some of these phenomena and argue that linguistic theories that do not incorporate these factors into models of prosody are likely to mischaracterize its role in language.


This article is categorized under:
Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain
Psychology > Language
Linguistics > Linguistic Theory

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What is mindreading?

What is mindreading?, Mindreading broadly construed. Abstract Theory of mind, also known as mindreading, refers to our ability to attribute mental states to agents in order to make sense of and interact with other agents. Recently, theorists in this literature have advanced a broad conception of mindreading., What is mindreading?

Mindreading broadly construed.







Abstract


Theory of mind, also known as mindreading, refers to our ability to attribute mental states to agents in order to make sense of and interact with other agents. Recently, theorists in this literature have advanced a broad conception of mindreading. In particular, psychologists and philosophers have examined how we attribute knowledge, intention, mentalistically loaded stereotypes, and personality traits to others. Moreover, the diversity of our goals in a social interaction—precision, efficiency, self/in‐group protection—generates diversity in the mindreading processes we employ. Finally, the products of mindreading are varied, as well. We produce different sorts of mindreading explanations depending on our epistemic goals and the situational context. In this article, I piece together these different strands of research to present a broad conception of mindreading that is complex, messy, and interesting.


This article is categorized under:
Philosophy > Knowledge and Belief
Philosophy > Psychological Capacities

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Place and language: Links between speech, region, and connection to place

Place and language: Links between speech, region, and connection to place, Place, such as the region of Appalachia, matters for language variation. Abstract The relationship to place and language has been central to linguistic research since the beginning., Place and language: Links between speech, region, and connection to place

Place, such as the region of Appalachia, matters for language variation.




Abstract


The relationship to place and language has been central to linguistic research since the beginning. Several distinctive eras of investigation into place and language have taken place, from focusing on relatively nonmobile elderly speakers to deep investigations of how different speakers relate to a particular place. Place impacts language in a variety of ways, from large differences between national varieties to ecological and social distinctions in varieties associated with a small local area or neighborhood. Further, place interacts with other social factors and contributes to linguistic variation in an additive (or perhaps even multiplicative) fashion. As the investigation into the impact of place has developed and evolved, researchers have noted that it is not merely place itself that is the most important, rather the speaker's relationship to place that is perhaps the most crucial aspect. In fact, a speaker with a close connection to place might use features that are associated with a particular place even if those features are stigmatized, because those features represent the speaker's connection to place. Without consideration of how a speaker orients—whether toward or away—any investigation into place or regionality and language will be incomplete.


This article is categorized under:
Linguistics > Linguistic Theory
Psychology > Language

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Issue Information

Issue Information, , , admin,

Coevolution of language and symbolic meaning: Co‐opting meaning underlying the initial arts in early human...

Coevolution of language and symbolic meaning: Co‐opting meaning underlying the initial arts in early human..., Human language's meaning system spawned (co‐opted) additional meaning systems (extra‐language). Adverse conditions fractured group cohesion, so early art forms of group dance formations and chorus singing were practiced to symbolically seal the fractures., Coevolution of language and symbolic meaning: Co‐opting meaning underlying the initial arts in early human culture

Human language's meaning system spawned (co‐opted) additional meaning systems (extra‐language). Adverse conditions fractured group cohesion, so early art forms of group dance formations and chorus singing were practiced to symbolically seal the fractures.




Abstract


Many of language's components, including communicating symbolic meaning, have neurobiological roots that go back millions of years in evolutionary time. The intersection with the human social survival strategy spawned additional adaptive meaning systems. Under conditions threatening survival in socially oriented human groups, extra‐language meaning systems co‐opted and adapted to facilitate unity, including the early formats of the arts. They would have percolated into cultural practice for this social purpose and ultimately survival. With evolutionary pressures tapping into biologically inherited, physiologically functioning sensory‐motor pathways, anchored specifically in rhythm cognition and motor synchrony output, initial art practice conveyed symbolic group cohesion through communal, all‐inclusive synchronously moving dance formations and rhythmically produced vocal or percussion sounds. As with the sounds of language in the deep past, and numerous other cultural behaviors, such nonmaterial early art formats would not have left marks in the archeological record but their evolutionary driven practice would have contributed to adaptive genetic factors woven into brain‐behavior evolution. Their practice is likely to have well predated unearthed art‐related objects. Consolidation of evidence and notions from language evolution, genetics, human physiology, comparative animal communication, archeology, and climate history in the distant past of early humans in Africa supports the evolutionary driven practice of initial nonmaterial art formats conveying symbolic expressions optimizing group survival.


This article is categorized under:
Cognitive Biology > Evolutionary Roots of Cognition
Linguistics > Evolution of Language
Psychology > Comparative Psychology

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